Quantitative research is based on the assortment and investigation of numerical data. It depends on interpretations and opinions. It is mainly used for studying social, economic, and psychological processes. It is based on on-measurable resources. In quantitative research, data is presented in the form of numbers. The researcher evaluates and analyzes this numerical data by using statistical analysis. The results obtained through the quantitative research method are considered more reliable than the qualitative research method because they are based on numbers. The quantitative research method contains a proper sample size which helps in generating accurate and consistent results. The most frequently used approaches for data collection in quantitative research are discussed below by a PhD dissertation writing service.
Surveys are used as a quantitative data collection tool that produces close-ended responses. The surveys are based on questionnaires. These questionnaires are either based on a yes or no answer or a rating scale. The surveys are based on demographic information, behavior, and opinions. Previously the surveys were done on printouts of questionnaires but now many online tools are commonly used by researchers for online surveys. Online surveys are a cost-saving technique and through online surveys, you can reach more audiences. It is best to use the surveys for data collection when you need instant feedback.
Using surveys for data collection has many advantages. It is a speedy way of data collection. Data collected through surveys can easily be interpreted. Through online surveys, a researcher can reach a more targeted audience. Online surveys help to reach the right targeted audience. Besides many useful advantages of surveys, there also exist some drawbacks. As compared to other methods of data collection, surveys provide fewer details. The design of the survey is very important. If the researcher fails to properly design the survey, then the responses will not be useful and lose their quality.
The interview is the data collection technique for quantitative research, which is very much similar to surveys. There are question answers in both interview and survey but in an interview, the answers are recorded by the researcher whereas in surveys the responder records the answer by himself. Interviews are of three types; structures, unstructured, and semi-structured. The interview methodology for data collection demands that the same questions must be asked to every respondent in the same way, and there should be no input by the interviewer. This technique is best to use when the researcher is targeting a specific group of people. The interview methodology generates higher responsiveness as compared to other techniques.
When an interviewer asked the question by himself it becomes clearer and more understandable to the respondent as compared to the surveys. In interviews, the respondents can ask the interviewer for clarification of questions if needed but in surveys, there is no option to ask the researcher for the explanation of a question. Through interviews, the responses are collected in real-time and researchers do not have to wait for the response from the respondent. There does not exist any methodology that is 100% perfect. Every methodology or technique for data collection has some advantages as well as drawbacks. When there is a face-to-face interaction there are chances that the interviewer might influence the answers of the respondent. Interviews are time and cost-consuming.
Case studies are the secondary source of data collection. The data collected through case studies is verifiable. The data used in a case study is generated in real-time that is why case studies provide facts. Case studies are relevant to all the participants involved in data collection for research. A case study is a methodology that is dependent on other methodologies as well. A case study is an inexpensive technique for data collection. In case studies, a researcher can influence the result because he is the person who decides about the facts. Although it is an inexpensive technique but to requires more time for analysis. For its effectiveness, a case study must involve a small sample size otherwise, it is considered inefficient.
Existing Data or Secondary Sources:
If the researcher does not wants to use primary sources and can also use secondary sources. These sources include already existing facts and figures, journals, newspapers, and articles. Using existing data is inexpensive, accurate, time-saving, and accessible. When you are using a primary source for data collection, it needs specific skills and expertise from the researcher. But when you are using the secondary source of data collection, no such skills or expertise are required. But it requires the researcher to understand this data, and evaluation of already existing data is difficult.